|Percentage of female labourers in the labour force of Việt Nam compared with the world, East Asia-Pacific, low middle income countries and Cambodia. — VNS Infographic Khánh Dương|
HÀ NỘI — Some 72 per cent of Vietnamese women have joined the labour force, higher than the average world percentage (42 per cent), and ranking only behind Cambodia (81 per cent).
These figures were revealed in a recently-released report of the Centre for Development and Integration, a Vietnamese non-governmental and non-profit organisation.
The statistics are based on surveys and studies conducted by a network for migrant workers called M.net, set up by Oxfam, with six Vietnamese non-governmental members.
According to the report, the number of female labourers in Việt Nam accounts for 48.4 per cent of the labour force. However, they still face inequalities at work.
The report refers to examples in the sectors of textile, leather shoes and electronics. Women make up for more than 70 per cent of the labour force in these sectors; however, they benefit only a small value of the global supply chain.
In the textile sector, labour cost accounts for only 2 per cent of the wholesale price of a product, while employers enjoy 16 per cent of the profit. Companies cause pressure to reduce labour cost. As a consequence, Vietnamese labourers have to take on a heavy workload, with more working hours but lower wages.
The report also points out gender inequality at work in Việt Nam. As many as 7.8 million female labourers of the non-official labour sector work in poor conditions.
Nearly 60 per cent of unofficial female labourers have to take on work with low wages, bad security at work, and lack of welfare, while the figure for male labourers is only 31.8 per cent.
There are more barriers for women than men in terms of career development at all skill levels.
Only 26 per cent of leading positions are occupied by women, while women take on more than 52 per cent of simple work and 66.6 per cent of household work.
Women make up over 57 per cent of the unemployed in the group of unskilled labourers and more than half of the group receiving vocational training. Some 55 per cent of unemployed women hold a bachelor’s degree.
Women are paid 11 per cent lower than men for similar work. The gap is widened in groups at higher skill levels, the report reveals. — VNS