In 2022, the Politburo issued six resolutions on socio-economic development and ensuring national defence and security in six key regions, a necessary and judicious move to optimise each one’s potential and promote national development.
The 13th National Congress of the Communist Party of Việt Nam held in early 2021 devised the socio-economic development strategy for 2030 with a vision to 2045. Accordingly by 2030, Việt Nam will have become a developing country with modern industry and upper-middle income, and a developed and high-income country by 2045.
The strategy also identified the direction for the development of the regions – fully capitalising on each region’s advantages in terms of infrastructure, natural conditions, geopolitics, geography, and human resources, along with enhancing connectivity within each region to help participation in global value chains and create new development spaces.
The six resolutions were made for six regions: the midland and mountain region of the North; the Red River Delta, the North Central and Central Coast region, the Central Highlands, the eastern region of the South (or Southeast), and the Mekong River Delta.
Each region has its own characteristics, potential, advantages, and challenges. To utilise their potential, aside from common development policies, it is necessary to issue specific and appropriate policy for each region.
Developing regions is a consistent policy of the Party to fully tap into the advantages of regions and localities nationwide to serve socio-economic development, ensure security, and improve people’s lives.
As soon as the resolutions were passed, the Politburo and the Party Central Committee’s Secretariat held conferences to study and publicise the issues among ministries, sectors and localities.
Addressing those events, Party General Secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng stressed the resolutions’ importance, noting the foremost task of effectively implementing them to translate guidelines and policies into reality.
He emphasised that in addition to being aware of the resolutions’ purpose, it would be important to guarantee high consensus across the whole country at all levels; understand that this is the responsibility of the entire political system; deal with the relationship between regional and national development; and promote consensus on the importance of regional connectivity.
The building, issuance and implementation of the six resolutions hold great necessity for realising the goals set in the Resolution of the 13th National Party Congress, including turning Việt Nam into a developing country with modern industry and upper-middle income by 2030 and a developed and high-income country by 2045.
Northern midland, mountain region
The first resolution on regional development issued by the Politburo was Decree No 11-NQ/TW on orientations for socio-economic development, ensuring national defence and security of the Northern midland and mountain region by 2030, with a vision to 2045.
The Northern midland and mountain region consists of 14 provinces.
Earlier in 2004, the Politburo issued a resolution on the region’s development direction to 2020. After nearly two decades, major changes have been made. However, the region’s potential has not been fully tapped.
The region is still classified among poverty-stricken areas with a slow growth pace.
Decree No 11-NQ/TW targets turning the Northern midland and mountain region into a green, sustainable and comprehensive development zone and a role model of green development for the whole country.
About half of the provinces in the region are expected to be at a medium development level by 2045.
Other targets include preserving and promoting the cultural identities of ethnic minority groups, enhancing the quality of life, ensuring national security, building a strong Party system, and strengthening solidarity among ethnic groups.
Investing in socio-economic infrastructure and human resources will be the two driving forces of the region’s development, focusing on traffic infrastructure attached to economic corridors and training high-quality labour forces.
Mekong River Delta
The Politburo’s resolution on the Mekong River Delta’s development was issued on April 2, 2022.
The Mekong River Delta is home to 13 provinces.
As a rice- and fruit- producing centre, the region has maintained economic growth at a medium rate with an increasing proportion of industry and services.
Several processing centres for agricultural and fishery products with advanced technology have been established in the region. It has also focused on the marine economy, developing fisheries into a spearhead economic sector.
According to Resolution 13, by 2045, the Mekong Delta’s development will be “comprehensive, ecological, civilised and sustainable, preserving the cultural identity of the community living by the river”.
The Mekong Delta will become a sustainable, dynamic and highly efficient agricultural economic centre of the country, the Southeast Asia region and the world.
To realise these targets, the region will develop a system of agricultural centres, economic corridors and infrastructure systems to adapt to climate change and develop marine and tourist economies.
|A section of road in the Southeast province of Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu. — VNA/VNS Photo Hồng Đạt|
Home to HCM City and five central-level provinces, the Southeastern region contributed 32 per cent of GDP in 2020. The region’s income per capita in 2020 was the highest nationwide.
In 2020, the Gross Regional Product of the Southeastern region increased by almost five-fold compared to 2005 and 2.6 times compared to 2010, exceeding the target.
The Politburo’s resolution on developing the Southeastern region was issued on October 7, 2022.
By 2030, the region will become a dynamic development area with a high economic growth rate and the country’s driving force of growth. It is set to become a developed region with strong economic potential and a modern economic structure by 2045.
It will become a hub of science–technology, innovation, logistics and high-tech industry, as well as an international financial centre of the Southeast Asian region and the world.
HCM City will serve as a nucleus and a magnet for growth in the region.
|Dray Nur Waterfall in the Central Highlands province of Đắk Lắk. — VNA/VNS Photo Vũ Sinh|
With five provinces, the Central Highlands has a strategic position in terms of economy, politics, culture, society, environment, national defence, security and foreign affairs.
The Politburo resolution issued on October 6, 2022, pointed out that development of the Central Highlands region must find a balance between economy, culture, social development, and protection of natural resources and environment, associated with national defence, security and foreign affairs.
The key target of regional development is to restructure the economy and turn it into a green economy, with a circular economy as the focus.
The region will shift from agricultural production to an agricultural economy based on high-technology applications and digital transformation.
The Central Highlands will also focus on protecting, restoring and developing forests and improving local residents' livelihoods associated with them.
The development of renewable energy, the agricultural product processing industry and the mining and processing industry of bauxite and aluminium are key for the region.
The region is set to develop tourism hubs and products linked with the cultural identity of local ethnic minorities.
The resolution also highlights the close association between the Central Highlands with the Southeastern region and Central coastal provinces.
The Central Highlands will speed up the connection with major economic centres of the country, with countries in the Mekong Sub-region, ASEAN, especially within the Greater Mekong Sub-region Cooperation, and the Development Triangle Area (Việt Nam-Laos- Cambodia).
North Central and Central Coast region
|A corner of Đà Nẵng City. — VNA/VNS Photo Quốc Dũng|
The North Central and Central Coast region consists of 14 provinces from Thanh Hóa to Bình Thuận.
Positive changes have been made in the region over the past 20 years.
With dynamic development, the region has played an important role in the international cooperation and integration of the country. However, it still has several growth indicators lower than the national average.
The Politburo resolution issued on November 3, 2022 identifies the strategic position and role of the North Central and Central Coast region.
The resolution highlights that the region needs to make more drastic and innovative changes for rapid and sustainable development to fully tap the potential of every locality and the whole region.
The region needs to shorten development gaps among localities to improve the capabilities and incomes of local residents so that the region will catch up with other developed regions. This is a key task for local authorities.
Red River Delta
|Tourists take photos on Thê Húc Bridge - one of tourism attractions in Hà Nội. —VNA/VNS Photo Hoàng Hiếu|
The latest Politburo resolution on regional development for the Red River Delta issued on November 23, 2022. The region consists of 11 central-level provinces and cities, divided into two sub-regions: northern and southern.
The northern sub-region, known as the northern key economic region, has seven provinces and cities. The southern sub-region consists of four provinces.
In 2015-20, the regional growth rate reached 7.49 per cent per year, higher than the national average.
In 2020, the region’s economic development contributed 29.4 per cent of the national GDP. The GRDP per capita in 2020 was VNĐ103.6 million, 1.3 times higher than the national average.
According to the Politburo resolution, the Red River Delta is set to develop sustainably, at a rapid pace, with a focus on economic structure and preservation of national cultural identity.
The region will develop modern industry, services and high-tech, with an organic, green, circular, and agricultural economy of high value.
The region is expected to be a hub of high-quality education and training, a leading science-technology centre, and to lead the country in innovation, digital economy and society, with modern socio-economic infrastructure and a focus on smart and highly connected cities.
Long-existing problems such as pollution, traffic congestion and flooding are to be solved.
The capital Hà Nội will be developed into a modern civilised city, becoming the centre and driving force for regional and national development, striving to be on par with other capital cities of developed countries in the region.
By 2045, the Red River Delta will be a major regional and global economic and financial centre and the country's leading hub of culture, education-training, science-technology, innovation, and public healthcare, while having a modern and smart socio-economic infrastructure. — VNS