1860 Birth of Hugo Wolf, Austrian composer (died 1903). Chiefly a composer of songs, he set the poetry of Goethe and Italian and Spanish writers to music and wrote the opera Der Corregidor.
1906 Death of Susan B Anthony, pioneer and leader of the women’s suffrage movement in the United States. In 1888, she organised the International Council of Women.
1938 Austria is declared part of the German Reich.
1954 The Vietnamese resistance army begins a strategic campaign against the French’s most fortified entrenched camp in Indochina at Ñieän Bieân Phuû, north-western Vieät Nam.
1971 The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vieät Nam denounces the US and Sai Gon forces for continuing the massacre of civilians in South Vieät Nam following the slaughter in 1968 of over 500 villagers at Myõ Lai, Quaûng Ngaõi Province.
2000 Alcoa Inc settles a government lawsuit by agreeing to spend US$8.8 million to clean up the Mississippi River and reduce pollution.
2001 Foot-and-mouth disease strikes France’s vital farm belt.
2002 Angola’s government announces a ceasefire in its 27-year civil war against the rebel National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, known as UNITA.
2006 A series of powerful storms in the US spawn numerous tornadoes, leaving nine people dead and generating miles of destruction across five states.
2007 Somalia’s President Abdullahi Yusuf comes under mortar attack in his palace just hours after moving in upon his return from southern stronghold Baidoa. He escapes unharmed in the assault, which kills seven people including a 12-year-old boy.
2008 Serbia’s president dissolves parliament and calls an early election that should determine whether the country aligns itself with the European Union and other Western groups or returns to its isolationist past.
2009 Under pressure from the US and other troubled economies, the Swiss government announces that it will cooperate in international tax investigations, breaking with a long-standing tradition of protecting wealthy foreigners accused of hiding billions of dollars.
2010 Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki’s political coalition takes an early vote lead in the election’s all-important battleground of Baghdad, pulling away from its two closest rivals in the latest indication that Iraqis want a moderate government.
2011 The estimated death toll from Japan’s natural disasters climbs past 10,000 as authorities race to combat the threat of multiple nuclear reactor meltdowns and hundreds of thousands of people struggle to find food and water. The prime minister said it was the nation’s worst crisis since World War II.
2013 Jorge Bergoglio of Argentina is elected pope, becoming the first pontiff from the Americas and the first from outside Europe in more than a millennium. He chooses the name Francis.
2015 The five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council — Britain, China, France, Russia, and the U.S. — along with Germany and Iran have begun talks on lifting sanctions on Tehran if it strikes a deal curbing its controversial nuclear program.– AP/REUTERS/VNS